|(d) The person is responsible for behavior|
If the person grows from the inside out, then the person is responsible for behavior. Extrinsic motivation requires extrinsic control, whereas intrinsic motivation requires intrinsic control. The constraining force of society on a person with extrinsic motivation may be replaced by the restraining force of a person with intrinsic motivation. This is reflected, within the discipline of psychology, by a shift in emphasis from other-control to self-control. The lay person has been appropriately apprehensive about the psychologist because of the threat that, the better the psychologist understands you, the easier the psychologist can control you. This public image of the psychologist is somewhat justified, since the emphasis has indeed been on how to make organisms - whether rats or raccoons, pigeons or people - behave as the behaviorist wants them to behave. The recent burgeoning of research on self-control (once a taboo topic) is an encouraging sign that psychology is turning from yet one more instrument of oppression to one of liberation.
This does not mean that we must start again from scratch. Each technique for understanding and control of other people is also a technique for self-understanding and self-control. Psychologists are beginning to present the powerful tools they have developed to the public so that people may use them for self-understanding and self-control. Even behavioristic means can be used to humanistic ends. Power to the person.
This discussion of other-control versus self-control is a modern rephrasing of the determinism versus free-will chestnut which philosophers have been roasting for centuries. Perhaps this controversy has been with us so long because both positions are true. The determinist is determined because he believes he is determined whereas the free-willist has free will because he believes he has free will. The first act of free will is to believe in it .
Two propositions which are incompatible with respect to the objective world may be perfectly compatible with respect to two different subjective maps of the objective world. People who have a behavioristic self-concept based on extrinsic motivation will tend to believe that their behavior is determined. The self-fulfilling prophecy (what you expect is what you get) will ensure that their behavior is indeed determined. People who have a humanistic self-concept based on intrinsic motivation will tend to believe that they control their own behavior. The self-fulfilling prophecy will, in this case, ensure that they indeed have free will. In this way, the determinist and the freewillist have both accumulated 'evidence' for their respective theories throughout our history. Each theory tends to be based on what feels good rather than on what seems true . You do not believe it because it is true, but it becomes true because you believe it.
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