|FIGURE 4.1: FOUR APPROACHES TO DEVELOPMENT|
The micro-macro distinction encourages a strategy of integration in which the micro people work up to the macro level and the macro people work down to the micro level. I will argue here that they may suffer the fate of Pat and Mick who started building a tunnel by working from both ends toward the middle and ended up with two tunnels . I will argue, further, that I can see light only from one end of the tunnel - the one which goes from micro to macro. This may simply be the rationalization of a micro man but I will try to present a rationale for this argument. I will argue even further that this light can be seen only when looking one way - from the inside-out rather than from the outside-in. That is, I am abandoning the good-natured democratic stance that each level of analysis and each point of view is equally valid and saying that one should start with the micro level of analysis and inside-out point of view (that is, from the bottom right cell of the 2 x 2 matrix in Figure 4.1).
However, most discussion of development is from a macro level of analysis and an outside-in point of view - that is, from within the top left cell of the 2 x 2 matrix in Figure 4.1. One typical textbook, Problems of the developing nations by L. P. Fickett, is organized under the ' four fundamental aspects of the development process' - the sociological, the economic, the military, and the political (that is, all of them are at the macro level of analysis and the outside-in point of view).
One reason why discussion is at a macro level is clear. Those responsible for public policy tend to consult experts on institutions (economists, political scientists, sociologists, anthropologists) since analysis at this macro level helps clarify the 'big picture' within which they must act. One reason why discussion is from an outside-in point of view follows. Insofar as people can be seen at all, from this bird's eye level, it is their behavior rather than their experience which is observed.
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