Make your own free website on


      The two projects are complementary rather than parallel. My project could be seen as complementary to those of Thelma Nudler and of Johan Galtung. Nudler contributes to a more enlightened discussion of development by recommending that it be extended from the macro to the micro level - that is, from the top left cell to the bottom left cell in Fig. 4.1. In this chapter, I am recommending a second shift from the outside-in to the inside-out point of view within the micro level of analysis - that is, from the bottom left cell to the bottom right cell. Galtung recommends a third shift from a structure-oriented to an actor-oriented perspective on society or, in the terms used here, from the micro to the macro level of analysis within an inside-out point of view - that is, from the bottom right cell to the top right cell. Since the direct route from the top left to the top right cell is difficult, I recommend the Nudler-Gardiner-Galtung scenic route. Go down Nudler Pass from top left to bottom left, take the Gardiner Expressway from bottom left to bottom right, and then go up Galtung Pass from bottom right to top right.

Those brave souls who allow themselves to be nudged by Nudler from top to bottom left must learn to ignore the catcalls of 'reductionist' from the loftier macro regions. Those who are goaded by Gardiner from bottom left to right must not only ignore the cries of 'reductionist' ,from above but also those of 'subjectivist' from the left. There should be a similar epithet (to convey the opposite of 'reductionist') for those who are further goaded by Galtung from bottom to top right [4].

Whatever the epithets, the courage in countering them may be rewarded by a fresh view of social development, which is not available to those who are locked in that traditional macro outside-in top left cell. In section 2, The outside-in view of behaviorism, I shall present a view of development from within the bottom left cell, in section 3, The inside-out view of humanism, I shall move into a view of development from within the bottom right cell, and in section 4, From micro to macro, I shall move into a view of development from within the top right cell. Though this second shift takes me outside the range of my professional competence, I shall try to share my glimpse of a light at the end of the tunnel. Those of us whose competence is at this macro level of analysis may then be encouraged to continue digging in this direction.

      1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16      

17  18  19  20  21  22  23  24  25  26  27  28  29